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Pushbroom Imager for Cloud and Aerosol Research and Development

The Pushbroom Imager for Cloud and Aerosol Research and Development is a V/SWIR imaging spectrometer designed to support atmospheric research. It features an undistorted wide field of view, and 50 meter resolution pixels when flown on the ER-2 aircraft. It is intended to simulate existing satellite imager products (MODIS/VIIRS,) and to validate radiances and geophysical retrievals, with an emphasis on cloud and aerosol science. It will also be used to prototype future imager requirements and algorithms, and to contribute to multi-disciplinary NASA field studies.

Instrument Type: Dual Offner Imaging spectrometer
Measurements: V/SWIR imagery (205 bands, 400 – 2450nm, 50 deg. FOV)

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Research Scanning Polarimeter

In order to demonstrate the capabilities of polarimetry an instrument that can make either ground-based, or aircraft measurements, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) has been developed by SpecTIR Corporation. This instrument has similar functional capabilities to the proposed EOSP satellite instrument. The picture above shows the assembled RSP instrument with its liquid nitrogen dewar on the left side and scanner assembly on the right. Currently data acquisition is performed on a laptop, which is shown here and gives an indication of the size of the instrument. The scientific requirements for the polarimetric measurements are satisfied by the RSP through its high measurement accuracy, the wide range of viewing angles measured and by sampling of the spectrum of reflected solar radiation over most of the radiatively significant range. The RSP instrument uses a polarization compensated scan mirror assembly to scan the fields of view of six boresighted, refractive telescopes through ±60° from the normal with respect to the instrument baseplate. The refractive telescopes are paired, with each pair making measurements in three spectral bands. One telescope in each pair makes simultaneous measurements of the linear polarization components of the intensity in orthogonal planes at 0° and 90° to the meridional plane of the instrument, while the other telescope simultaneously measures equivalent intensities in orthogonal planes at 45° and 135°. This approach ensures that the polarization signal is not contaminated by uncorrelated spatial or temporal scene intensity variations during the course of the polarization measurements, which could create false polarization. These measurements in each instantaneous field of view in a scan provide the simultaneous determination of the intensity, and the degree and azimuth of linear polarization in all nine spectral bands.

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Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator

The Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (EMAS) is a multispectral scanner configured to approximate the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), an instrument orbiting on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS is designed to measure terrestrial and atmospheric processes. The EMAS was a joint development project of Daedalus Enterprises, Berkeley Camera Engineering, the USU Space Dynamics Laboratory, and Ames Research Center. The EMAS system acquires 50-meter spatial resolution imagery, in 38 spectral bands, of cloud and surface features from the vantage point of the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft.

Instrument Type: Multispectral Imager
Measurements: VNIR/SWIR/LWIR Imagery
 

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Three-View Cloud Particle Imager

The Three-View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) measures the size, shape and concentration of water drops and ice particles in clouds. The probe is a combination of three imaging instruments. Two of them comprise a 2D-S (Two- Dimensional Stereo hydrometeor spectrometer), in which two high-resolution (about 9 mm resolution) 2D probes image particles as they pass through laser beams that are orthogonal to each other. If particles also lie in the intersection of the sensitive areas of the two beams, they are seen by both 2D probes. In that case, the third instrument, a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI), is triggered to take a high-resolution picture, via a briefly illuminated high-resolution imaging array. This image has a pixel size of about 2.3 µm and so provides very high resolution for determining shapes and habits of ice crystals. The probe is particularly suited to imaging such crystals, but also provides good detection of other hydrometeors including large cloud droplets, drizzle and small rain drops, and other precipitation particles.

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Gulfstream V - NSF
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WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment

The WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment (WAVE) provides both ascent and entry imagery and enables better observation of the Shuttle on days of heavier cloud cover and areas obscured from ground cameras by the launch exhaust plume. WAVE comprises a 32-inch-ball turret system mounted on the nose of two WB-57 aircraft. The turret houses an optical bench, providing installation of both HDTV and infrared cameras. Optics consist of an 11-inch-diameter, 4.2 meter fixed-focal-length lens. The system can be operated in both auto track and manual modes.

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Video Uplink

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Telescopic High Definition Television

THDTV provides high definition TV imaging with long focal length optics. It consists of a professional Sony HDTV Camcorder studio with a broadcast quality low f-number zoom lens.

This instrument detects wake phenomena at highest possible spatial resolution.

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Leica RC-30 metric camera

The RC-30 is an airborne film camera system, using color infrared, natural color and black and white film, to obtain high resolution earth imagery.

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Large Pixel Format CCD Camera

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Intensified High Frame Rate Imager

The IHFRI provides imaging (and spectral) information at a rate of 1000 frames per second for detection of ablation anomalies, flicker in bowshock emissions, spacecraft rotation, and wake.

This instrument consists of a 6 inch clear aperature f0.75/105 mm lens and 256 x 256 pixel intensified CCD camera. The field of view is 6.25 x 6.25 degrees, illuminating 11.5 x 11.5 mm of the photocathode of the intensifier. The intensifier phospher has a brief decay time constant of 0.8 ms, ideally suited to study the natural afterglow in rapidly moving targets. It can be equipped with a low dispersion 7 inch 300 l/mm grating, providing a spectrum from 500 nm (15.9 mm from zero order) to 900 nm (29.4 mm from zero order) just outside the field of view. Spectrum can be recorded by pointing away from the SRC and will help target acquisition by providing a ray directed to the zero order.

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