TSI 3563 Integrating Nephelometer

TSI Integrating Nephelometers are designed specifically for studies of direct radiative forcing of the Earth’s climate by aerosol particles, or studies of ground-based or airborne atmospheric visual air quality in clean areas. They may also be used as an analytical detector for aerosol particles whenever the parameter of interest is the light-scattering coefficient of the particles after a pretreatment step, such as heating, humidification, or segregation by size. The light-scattering coefficient is a highly variable aerosol property. Integrating Nephelometers measure the angular integral of light scattering that yields the quantity called the aerosol scattering coefficient, which is used in the Beer-Lambert Law to calculate total light extinction.

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Cessna 402B, Citation, DC-8 - AFRC, P-3 Orion - WFF, Twin Otter, Twin Otter (DOE)

Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment

Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size distribution from 0.01 to 10 mm, total and submicron aerosol absorption coefficients at 470, 535, and 670 nm, total and submicron aerosol scattering coefficients at 550 nm, and total scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients at 400, 550 and 700 nm. LARGE derives aerosol size statistics (mode, number and mass mean diameters, etc.), aerosol surface area and mass loading, aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and angstrom coefficients. In situ aerosol sensors include condensation nuclei counters, optical particle spectrometers, an aerodynamic particle sizer, multi-wavelength particle-soot absorption photometers, and integrating nephelometers.

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Ames Extinction Scattering Optical Property Instrument

The Ames' Extinction Scattering Optical Property (AESOP) instrument measures aerosol extinction coefficient using cavity ring-down technology and scattering coefficient using reciprocal nephelometry. Measurements are made at two wavelengths (675 nm and 405 nm) with sufficient accuracy to obtain aerosol absorption coefficient, single scattering albedo, and the three Ångström exponents.

Aircraft: 
Twin Otter
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Multiple-Angle Aerosol Spectrometer Probe

The Multiple-Angle Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (MASP) determines the size and concentration of particles from about 0.3 to 20 microns in diameter and the index of refraction for selected sizes. Size is determined by measuring the light intensity scattered by individual particles as they transit a laser beam of 0.780µm wavelength. Light scattered from particles into a cone from 30 to 60 degrees forward and 120 to 150 degrees backwards is reflected by a mangin mirror through a condensing lens to the detectors. A comparison of the signals from the open aperture detector and the masked aperture detector is used to accept only those particles passing through the center of the laser beam. The size of the particle is determined from the total scattered light. The index of refraction of particles can be estimated from the ratio of the forward to back scatter signals. A calibration diode laser is pulsed periodically during flight to ensure proper operation of the electronics. The shrouded inlet minimizes angle of attack effects and maintains isokinetic flow through the sensing volume so that volatilization of particles is eliminated.

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2D-S Stereo Probe

The 2D-S Stereo Probe is an optical imaging instrument that obtains stereo cloud particle images and concentrations using linear array shadowing. Two diode laser beams cross at right angles and illuminate two linear 128-photodiode arrays. The lasers are single-mode, temperature-stabilized, fiber-coupled diode lasers operating at 45 mW. The optical paths are arbitrarily labeled the “vertical” and “horizontal” probe channels, but the verticality of each channel actually depends on how the probe is oriented on an aircraft. The imaging optical system is based on a Keplerian telescope design having a (theoretical) primary system magnification of 5X, which results in a theoretical effective size of (42.5 µm + 15 µm)/5 = 11.5 µm. However, actual lenses and arrays have tolerances, so it is preferable to measure the actual effective pixel size by dropping several thousands of glass beads with known diameters through the object plane of the optics system.

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