Synonyms: 
aerosols

Cloud, Aerosol, and Refractive Index Experiment

CARE consists of three instruments: an Optical Particle AnaLyzer (OPAL), a second generation Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS), and a Precipitation Imaging Probe (PIP). CARE detects the size distributions of aerosol and cloud particles in the size range between 0.5 µm and 6.2 mm, provides information about particle shape and cloud phase, and allows the retrieval of refractive index of single particles in the size range between ~0.5 and 2 µm.

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Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - U Vienna

Polarized Imaging Nephelometer

The Polarized Imaging Nephelometer is an in situ instrument designed and built at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland Baltimore County for the measurement of components of the aerosol phase matrix in high angular resolution between 2 to 178 deg scattering angles. The measured phase matrix provides extensive characterization of the scattering properties of the studied aerosols allowing for a very comprehensive set of aerosol scattering parameters. These measurements are essential for the validation of the new generation of aerosol remote sensors like the APS polarimeter in the Glory satellite, and for the construction of accurate models of real aerosol particles, specially the non-spherical ones.

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Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer

Measures concentration and records images of cloud particles from approximately 50-1600 microns in diameter with a resolution of 25 microns per pixel. Measures cloud droplet and aerosol concentrations within the size range of 0.5-50 microns.

The three DMT instruments included in the CAPS are the Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP), the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS), and the Hotwire Liquid Water Content Sensor (Hotwire LWC).

The CIP, which measures larger particles, operates as follows. Shadow images of particles passing through a collimated laser beam are projected onto a linear array of 64 photodetectors. The presence of a particle is registered by a change in the light level on each diode. The registered changes in the photodetectors are stored at a rate consistent with probe velocity and the instrument’s size resolution. Particle images are reconstructed from individual “slices,” where a slice is the state of the 64-element linear array at a given moment in time. A slice must be stored each time interval that the particle advances through the beam a distance equal to the resolution of the probe. Optional grayscale imaging gives three levels of shadow recording on each photodetector, allowing more detailed information on the particles.

The CAS, which measures smaller particles, relies on light-scattering rather than imaging techniques. Particles scatter light from an incident laser, and collecting optics guide the light scattered in the 4° to 12° range into a forward-sizing photodetector. This light is measured and used to infer particle size. Backscatter optics also measure light in the 168° to 176° range, which allows determination of the real component of a particle’s refractive index for spherical particles.

The Hotwire LWC instrument estimates liquid water content using a heated sensing coil. The system maintains the coil at a constant temperature, usually 125 °C, and measures the power necessary to maintain this temperature. More power is needed to maintain the temperature as droplets evaporate on the coil surface and cool the surface and surrounding air. Hence, this power reading can be used to estimate LWC. Both the LWC design and the optional PADS software contain features to ensure the LWC reading is not affected by conductive heat loss.

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Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer

A solar tracking Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS) is used for calculation of line of sight ozone and wavelength dependent aerosol optical depths.

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2 Channel Selected Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer

Titration of OH in H2SO4 and measurement of H2SO4 and MSA via proton exchange with NO3-. DMSO and DMSO2 are reacted with NH4+ ions. In all cases concentrations are determined by product/reactant ion ratios. Ion ratios are measured with quadrupole mass spectrometers.

OH measurements used to understand fast photooxidation chemistry; H2SO4 used to investigate particle nucleation; H2SO4 and MSA used to understand particle growth; DMSO and DMSO2 to investigate DMS oxidation process and its relation to particle production and growth.

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Particle Analysis By Laser Mass Spectrometry

The NOAA PALMS instrument measures single-particle aerosol composition using UV laser ablation to generate ions that are analyzed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer.  The PALMS size range is approximately 150 to >3000 nm and encompasses most of the accumulation and coarse mode aerosol volume. Individual aerosol particles are classified into compositional classes.  The size-dependent composition data is combined with aerosol counting instruments from Aerosol Microphysical Properties (AMP), the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE), and other groups to generate quantitative, composition-resolved aerosol concentrations.  Background tropospheric concentrations of climate-relevant aerosol including mineral dust, sea salt, and biomass burning particles are the primary foci for the ATom campaigns.  PALMS also provides a variety of compositional tracers to identify aerosol sources, probe mixing state, track particle aging, and investigate convective transport and cloud processing.

*_Standard data products_**: *

Particle type number fractions: sulfate/organic/nitrate mixtures, biomass burning, EC, sea salt, mineral dust, meteoric, alkali salts, heavy fuel combustion, and other. Sampling times range from 1-5 mins.

*_Advanced data products_**:*

Number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of the above particle types. Total sulfate and organic mass concentrations. Relative and absolute abundance of various chemical markers and aerosol sub-components: methanesulfonic acid, sulfate acidity, organic oxidation level, iodine, bromine, organosulfates, pyridine, and other species.

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Quartz Crystal Microbalance/Surface Acoustic Wave

QCM/SAW was developed to perform in-situ real time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors in the stratosphere. The instrument is integrated into a fuselage centerline pod. The instrument is controlled by an embedded micro controller. The preset sampling sequence is triggered by a single command issued by the pilot. Using an air pump, samples are collected and decelerated in two stages to match the velocity requirement at the cascade impactor. Once the sample enters the cascade impactor, aerosols contained in the sample are separated into 8 size bands. The separated particles are collected on the surface of the piezoelectric microbalance crystals. The samples are analyzed post-flight.

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Cloud Physics Lidar

The Cloud Physics Lidar, or CPL, is a backscatter lidar designed to operate simultaneously at 3 wavelengths: 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Figure 1 shows the entire CPL package in flight configuration. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser and photon-counting detection. Vertical resolution of the CPL measurements is fixed at 30 m; horizontal resolution can vary but is typically about 200 m. The CPL fundamentally measures range-resolved profiles of volume 180-degree backscatter coefficients. From the fundamental measurement, various data products are derived, including: time-height crosssection images; cloud and aerosol layer boundaries; optical depth for clouds, aerosol layers, and planetary boundary layer (PBL); and extinction profiles. The CPL was designed to fly on the NASA ER-2 aircraft but is adaptable to other platforms. Because the ER-2 typically flies at about 65,000 feet (20 km), onboard instruments are above 94% of the earth’s atmosphere, allowing ER-2 instruments to function as spaceborne instrument simulators. The ER-2 provides a unique platform for atmospheric profiling, particularly for active remote sensing instruments such as lidar, because the spatial coverage attainable by the ER-2 permits studies of aerosol properties across wide regions. Lidar profiling from the ER-2 platform is especially valuable because the cloud height structure, up to the limit of signal attenuation, is unambiguously measured.

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Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer

The CAPS is a combination probe designed around the newest technologies and the experience gained with over 20 years of using similar probes. It meets the goals of measuring a large range of particle sizes--0.5μm to 1.55mm--with one probe, thus minimizing space, cable connections, and data systems necessary for measurement of this range. Today's technology also provides the CAPS the processing power necessary to perform at speeds up to 200m/s. An intuitive graphical user interface, the Particle Analysis and Collection System (PACS), at the host computer, provides simple but powerful control of measurement parameters, while simultaneously displaying on-the-fly size distributions and derived parameters. All data interfaces are done via line drivers meeting the RS-422 electrical specification, allowing cable lengths of up to 100 meters--an improvement over RS-232 lines capable of only 15-meter cable lengths.

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