Laser Induced Fluorescence – Nitrogen Oxide

The LIF-NO instrument uses single-photon laser induced fluorescence to achieve fast, precise and accurate measurements of nitric oxide down to sub-pptv mixing ratios. The instrument is designed as a two-channel instrument and the second channel can be used to detect other species that can be converted into NO, such as NO2 or NOy. Measurements of reactive nitrogen species provide important constraints on radical oxidation chemistry, ozone destroying chemistry, and are useful tracers of pollution.

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Laser Induced Fluorescence – Sulfur Dioxide

The LIF-SO2 instrument detects sulfur dioxide at the single-part per trillion (ppt) level using red-shifted laser-induced fluorescence. It has operated on the WB-57 and Global Hawk aircraft in the UT/LS, as well as on the DC-8. Sulfur Dioxide is an important precursor for aerosols including nucleation of new particles globally and can be greatly enhanced in the stratosphere following explosive volcanic eruptions. An important implication of the Asian Monsoon is transport of aerosol precursors including SO2 into the lower stratosphere.

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COmpact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment

The NASA GSFC COmpact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument measures formaldehyde (CH2O) using a nonresonant laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique.  Originally designed to fly in the unpressurized pod of the Alpha Jet, COFFEE is capable of operation on both pressurized and unpressurized (high-altitude) aircraft.  COFFEE possesses the high sensitivity, fast time response, and dynamic range needed to observe CH2O throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

Formaldehyde is produced via the oxidation of hydrocarbons, notably methane (a ubiquitous greenhouse gas) and isoprene (the primary hydrocarbon emitted by vegetation). Observations of CH2O can thus provide information on many atmospheric processes, including:
 - Convective transport of air from the surface to the upper troposphere
 - Emissions of reactive hydrocarbons from cities, forests, and fires
 - Atmospheric oxidizing capacity, which relates to formation of ozone and destruction of methane
In situ observations of CH2O are also crucial for validating retrievals from satellite instruments, such as OMI, TROPOMI, and TEMPO.

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Compact Airborne NO2 Experiment

The NASA GSFC Compact Airborne NO2 Experiment (CANOE) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on both pressurized and unpressurized (high-altitude) aircraft. Using non-resonant laser induced fluorescence (LIF), CANOE possesses the high sensitivity, fast time response, and dynamic range needed to observe NO2 throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

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Compact Airborne Formaldehyde Experiment

The NASA GSFC Compact Airborne Formaldehyde Experiment (CAFE) instrument measures formaldehyde (CH2O) on both pressurized and unpressurized (high-altitude) aircraft. Using non-resonant laser induced fluorescence (LIF), CAFE possesses the high sensitivity, fast time response, and dynamic range needed to observe CH2O throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

Formaldehyde is produced via the oxidation of hydrocarbons, notably methane (a ubiquitous greenhouse gas) and isoprene (the primary hydrocarbon emitted by vegetation). Observations of CH2O can thus provide information on many atmospheric processes, including:
 - Convective transport of air from the surface to the upper troposphere
 - Emissions of reactive hydrocarbons from cities, forests, and fires
 - Atmospheric oxidizing capacity, which relates to formation of ozone and destruction of methane
In situ observations of CH2O are also crucial for validating retrievals from satellite instruments, such as OMI, TROPOMI, and TEMPO.

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DC-8 - AFRC, ER-2 - AFRC, C-23 Sherpa - WFF, HL5200 Hanseo University (NIER)
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Multiple Axis Resonance Fluorescence Chemical Conversion Detector for ClO and BrO

Vacuum ultraviolet radiation produced in a low pressure plasma discharge lamp is used to induce resonance scattering in Cl and Br atoms within a flowing sample. ClO and BrO are converted to Cl and Br by the addition of NO such that the rapid bimolecular reaction ClO + NO → Cl + NO2 (BrO + NO → Br + NO2) yields one halogen atom for each halogen oxide radical present in the flowing sample. Three detection axes are used to diagnose the spatial (and thus temporal) dependence of the ClO (BrO) to Cl (Br) conversion and to detect any removal of Cl (Br) following its formation. A double duct system is used both to maintain laminar flow through the detection region and to step the flow velocity in the detection region down from free stream (200 m/sec) to 20 m/sec in order to optimize the kinetic diagnosis.

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In Situ Airborne Formaldehyde

The NASA GSFC In Situ Airborne Formaldehyde (ISAF) instrument measures formaldehyde (CH2O) on both pressurized and unpressurized (high-altitude) aircraft. Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF), ISAF possesses the high sensitivity, fast time response, and dynamic range needed to observe CH2O throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere, where concentrations can range from 10 pptv to hundreds of ppbv.

Formaldehyde is produced via the oxidation of hydrocarbons, notably methane (a ubiquitous greenhouse gas) and isoprene (the primary hydrocarbon emitted by vegetation). Observations of CH2O can thus provide information on many atmospheric processes, including:
 - Convective transport of air from the surface to the upper troposphere
 - Emissions of reactive hydrocarbons from cities, forests, and fires
 - Atmospheric oxidizing capacity, which relates to formation of ozone and destruction of methane
In situ observations of CH2O are also crucial for validating retrievals from satellite instruments, such as OMI, TROPOMI, and TEMPO.

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DC-8 - AFRC, WB-57 - JSC, Gulfstream V - NSF, WP-3D Orion - NOAA, C-130 - NSF
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Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence CO Instrument

The NCAR/NSF G-V vacuum UV resonance fluorescence instrument is a commercial version of the instrument published by Gerbig, et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. D1, 1699-1704, 1999). The source is a flowing RF discharge gas lamp emitting in the VUV. An optical filter provides a narrow band of source radiation centered at 151 nm with a 10 nm bandpass. CO fluorescence is detected using photon counting. The internal data system can accommodate sampling rates from 1-18 samples/second. For SEAC4RS, the instrument was integrated into the HAIS ozone instrument rack and shared a pressure-controlled inlet.

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Gulfstream V - NSF
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Harvard Halogen Instrument

Many changes from the original Chlorine Nitrate instrument. NO2 instrument removed. New inlet with orifice for one halogen duct, addition of vacuum scroll pump, new RF oscillators and amplifiers, new RF frequency, new lamp housings and cooling for lamp modules. Flew in MACPEX without dissociation heaters, i.e., focus on BrO and ClO measurements and not measure ClONO2 or ClOOCl.

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UNH Mercury

The UNHMERC instrument provides detailed information on atmospheric mercury. Measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg°) are performed simultaneously with one minute time resolution using a custom four-channel atomic fluorescence spectrometer. The relative amount of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM = HgCl2 + HgBr2+ HgOBr + …) will be assessed through careful examination of the difference between TGM and Hg°. TGM is defined as the sum Hg° + RGM. Targeted aerosol sampling will also be conducted for particulate-phase mercury (HgP).

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