J(NO2) Radiometer

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Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer

In early 2000, the Ames Atmospheric Radiation Group completed the design and development of an all new Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR). The SSFR is used to measure solar spectral irradiance at moderate resolution to determine the radiative effect of clouds, aerosols, and gases on climate, and also to infer the physical properties of aerosols and clouds. Additionally, the SSFR was used to acquire water vapor spectra using the Ames 25-meter base-path multiple-reflection absorption cell in a laboratory experiment. The Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer is a moderate resolution flux (irradiance) spectrometer with 8-12 nm spectral resolution, simultaneous zenith and nadir viewing. It has a radiometric accuracy of 3% and a precision of 0.5%. The instrument is calibrated before and after every experiment, using a NIST-traceable lamp. During field experiments, the stability of the calibration is monitored before and after each flight using portable field calibrators. Each SSFR consists of 2 light collectors, which are either fix-mounted to the aircraft fuselage, or on a stabilizing platform which counteracts the movements of the aircraft. Through fiber optic cables, the light collectors are connected to 2 identical pairs of spectrometers, which cover the wavelength range from (a) 350 nm-1000 nm (Zeiss grating spectrometer with Silicon linear diode array) and (b) 950 nm - 2150 nm (Zeiss grating spectrometer with InGaAs linear diode array). Each spectrometer pair covers about 95% of the incoming solar incident irradiance spectrum.

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Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers

The SAFS instruments determine wavelength dependent actinic flux from 280-420 nm. The actinic flux in combination with the absorption cross section and quantum yield molecular data will be used to calculate the photolysis frequencies of multiple photochemically important molecular processes, including O3, NO2, HONO, CH2O, H2O2, CH3OOH, HNO3, PAN, CH3NO3, CH3CH2NO3, and CH3COCH3.

The SAFS measurement is based on a 2p steradian hemisphere hemispherical quartz light collector, a double monochromator, and a low dark current photomultiplier. The monochromator employs dual 2400 G/mm gratings which produce a 1 nm FWHM spectral resolution and very low straylight. The instrument package on the aircraft includes two independent, but time synchronized (IRIG-B) spectroradiometer systems to measure the up- and down-welling fluxes in a 10 second scan time. Summing these produces the spherically integrated actinic flux.

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Radiometric Measurement System

Optics: We employed very simple optical arrangement for the radiometer. The diffuser-light trap arrangement provides a hemispherical field of view with incident radiation being collimated by the high reflectance walls of the exponential-logarithmic cavity. Enough collimation of the radiation is achieved with this design that narrow spectral bandpass interference filters can be used to select desired wavelength regions.

Electronics: The instrument electronics includes five major functional blocks. They are the detectors signal conditioning block, the data processing block, the system controller block, the shadow ring drive and control block, and the data storage block.

The signal detectors are silicon photodiodes operating in the photovoltaic mode and covering the spectral range from about 0.3 to 1.1µm. Their signals are converted into electrical voltages by low noise FET input operational amplifiers. Programmable gain amplifiers allow adjustments for dynamic range, and filter circuits condition the signals for analog to digital processing. Data processing units consist of an analog multiplexer circuit, a sample-and-hold circuit, and an analog to digital converter providing a 12-bit resolution output. The shadow ring is driven by a DC motor rotating at a constant speed. A motor controller is used to maintain motor speed. The system controller provides the timing necessary to perform all the system's tasks. It sets the shadow ring in motion and steps through the detector's outputs, maintaining the proper dynamic range for the analog to digital converter by selecting the proper amplifier gain. It also controls the analog to digital conversion and selectively stores data.

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In-situ Net Flux within the Atmosphere of the Earth

INFLAME provides a direct measurement of the net flux, and requires high stability with much less stringent requirements on absolute accuracy, thereby removing the major impediment of existing measurements. The INFLAME instruments, deployed on small aircraft, will provide a direct measurement of the net flux radiative, flux divergences, and heating rates in clear sky, in the presence of aerosols, and in the presence of cloud particles.

The INFLAME instrument measures the net flux by using a low-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to observe the upward and downward flux simultaneously using the two inputs of the same instrument. The two complementary outputs of the FTS can be transformed to produce spectra proportional to the difference between the two inputs.

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Composition and Photo-Dissociative Flux Measurement

The instrument used for the CPFM is a spectroradiometer based on a concave, holographic diffraction grating and a 1024-element diode array detector. It measures the intensities of the two linear polarization components of radiation propagating upward at the aircraft location from a range of elevation angles near the horizon. In addition, a measurement of the intensity of the direct solar beam is made by viewing a horizontal diffusing surface mounted under a quartz dome on board the aircraft. These measurements are used to verify atmospheric light-scattering calculations, which are essential for the accurate modeling of the chemistry of the stratosphere where POLARIS makes its measurements.

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Cloud Absorption Radiometer

CAR is a multi-wavelength scanning radiometer for determining albedo of clouds in the visible and near-infrared and measuring the angular distribution of scattered radiation and bidirectional reflectance of various surface types. It acquires imagery of cloud and Earth surface features.

For details, visit: https://car.gsfc.nasa.gov

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J-31, P-3 Orion - WFF, Convair-580
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BroadBand Radiometers

The Broadband Radiometers (BBR) consist of modified Kipp & Zonen CM-22 pyranometers (to measure solar irradiance) and CG-4 pyrgeometers (to measure IR irradiance) (see http://www.kippzonen.com/). The modifications to make these instruments more suitable for aircraft use include new instrument housings and amplification of the signal at the sensor. The instruments are run in current-loop mode to minimize the effects of noise in long signal cables. The housing is sealed and evacuated to prevent condensation or freezing inside the instrument. Each BBR has the following properties: Field-of-view: Hemispheric Temperature Range: -65C to +80C Estimated Accuracy: 3-5% Data Rate: 10Hz

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