G2301-m

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G2301-f

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OSCAR lab

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OSCAR portable

TBD

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COMA

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ARC Picarro

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NOAA Picarro

The Picarro G2401m is a commerical instrument that measures CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O. The analyzer is based on Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), a time-based measurement utilizing a near-infrared laser to measure a spectral signature of the molecule. Gas is circulated in an optical measurement cavity with an effective path length of up to 20 kilometers. A patented, high-precision wavelength monitor makes certain that only the spectral feature of interest is being monitored, greatly reducing the analyzer’s sensitivity to interfering gas species, and enabling ultra-trace gas concentration measurements even if there are other gases present. As a result, the analyzer maintains high linearity, precision, and accuracy over changing environmental conditions with minimal calibration required.

The measurement software of the NOAA Picarro has been modified to have a shorter measurement interval (~1.2 seconds instead of ~2.4 seconds) by reducing the number of scans of the CO spectroscopic peak and therefore yielding a less-precise CO measurement (1σ on 1-2 second measurements is ~9 ppb instead of ~4 ppb). The instrument was also modified to have a lower cell pressure set point (80 torr instead of 140 torr) to allow it to operate across the full pressure altitude range of the DC8 without requiring upstream pressurization of the sample stream.

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Harvard Tracer Suite

HTS is composed of two instruments based on absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in high finesse optical cavities. A Picarro G2401-m analyzer based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measures CO2, CH4, and CO concentrations at 2-second intervals. A Los Gatos 913-0014 EP analyzer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) measures N2O and CO concentrations at 1-second intervals. Extensive modifications have been applied to these commercial analyzers for flight and include vibration isolation, temperature control, additional flow control and pumping capacity for high-altitude sampling, sample drying, and in-flight calibrations using WMO-traceable compressed gas standards to verify stable and accurate performance throughout the full DC-8 flight envelope.

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Programmable Flask Package Whole Air Sampler

The PFP whole air sampler provides a means of automated or manual filling of glass flasks, twelve per PFP. The sampler is designed to remove excess water vapor from the sampled air and compress it without contamination into ~1-liter volumes. These flasks are analyzed at the NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division laboratory for trace gasses and at  the INSTAR’s Staple Isotope Lab laboratory for isotopes of methane. More than 60 trace gases found in the global atmosphere can be measured at mole fractions that range from parts-per-million (10-6), e.g., carbon dioxide, down to parts-per-quadrillion (10-15), e.g., HFC-365mfc.  The chemical species monitored include N2O, SF6, H2, CS2, OCS, CO2, CH4, CO, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, Solvents, Methyl Halides, Hydrocarbons and Perfluorocarbons.

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Medusa Whole Air Sampler

Medusa collects 32 cryogenically dried, flow and pressure controlled samples per flight. The samples are collected by an automated sampler into 1.5 L glass flasks that integrate over 25-s (1 e-fold) periods. Medusa provides discretely-sampled comparisons for onboard in situ O2/N2 ratio and CO2 measurements and unique measurements of Ar/N2 and 13C, 14C, and 18O isotopologues of CO2. The complementary measurements allow ground-truthing of onboard instrument measurements in a laboratory setting, where analysis conditions can often be more stringently controlled and carefully monitored. Isotope and argon measurements can provide additional information about land and ocean controls over the carbon cycle, and about the age and source of the air sampled.

Medusa consists of an onboard computer, two pressure controllers, two
 pumps, three multi-position selector
valves, and a host of other hardware that
control and direct the air samples. All air
is dried by passing it through traps
immersed in a -78 C dry ice bath, adjusted to match atmospheric pressure
at sea level, and then automatically isolated in a flask. Medusa flasks are analyzed on a sector-magnet mass spectrometer and a LiCor non-dispersive infrared CO2 analyzer by the Scripps O2 Program at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

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