High concentration of ultrafine particles in the Amazon free troposphere...

Zhao, B., M. Shrivastavaa, N. Donahue, H. Gordon, M. Schervish, J. E. Shilling, R. A. Zaveria, J. Wangg, M. O. Andreaeh, C. Zhaok, B. Gaudeta, Y. Liu, J. Fana, and J. D. Fast (2022), High concentration of ultrafine particles in the Amazon free troposphere produced by organic new particle formation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 117, doi:10.1073/pnas.2006716117.

The large concentrations of ultrafine particles consistently observed at high altitudes over the tropics represent one of the world’s largest aerosol reservoirs, which may be providing a globally important source of cloud condensation nuclei. However, the sources and chemical processes contributing to the formation of these particles remain unclear. Here we investigate new particle formation (NPF) mechanisms in the Amazon free troposphere by integrating insights from laboratory measurements, chemical transport modeling, and field measurements. To account for organic NPF, we develop a comprehensive model representation of the temperature-dependent formation chemistry and thermodynamics of extremely low volatility organic compounds as well as their roles in NPF processes. We find that pure-organic NPF driven by natural biogenic emissions dominates in the uppermost tropotroposphere as new particles grow to CCN size (larger than

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Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP)