Sunlight transmission through desert dust and marine aerosols: Diffuse light...

Russell, P. B., J. M. Livingston, O. Dubovik, S. A. Ramirez, J. Wang, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, M. Box, and B. Holben (2004), Sunlight transmission through desert dust and marine aerosols: Diffuse light corrections to Sun photometry and pyrheliometry, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D08207, doi:10.1029/2003JD004292.

Desert dust and marine aerosols are receiving increased scientific attention because of their prevalence on intercontinental scales and their potentially large effects on Earth radiation, climate, other aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The relatively large size of dust and marine aerosol particles produces scattering phase functions that are strongly forward peaked. Hence Sun photometry and pyrheliometry of these aerosols are more subject to diffuse light errors than is the case for smaller aerosols. We quantify these diffuse light effects for common Sun photometer and pyrheliometer fields of view (FOV), using data on dust and marine aerosols from (1) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements of sky radiance and solar beam transmission and (2) in situ measurements of aerosol layer size distribution and chemical composition. Accounting for particle nonsphericity is important when deriving dust size distribution from both AERONET and in situ aerodynamic measurements. We obtain correction factors that can be applied to Sun photometer or pyrheliometer results for aerosol optical depth (AOD) or direct beam transmission. The corrections are negligible (less than $1% of AOD) for Sun photometers with narrow FOV (half-angle h < $1°), but they can be as large as 10% of AOD at 354 nm wavelength for Sun photometers with h = 1.85°. For pyrheliometers (which can have h up to $2.8°), corrections can be as large as 16% at 354 nm. AOD correction factors

˚ are well correlated with AOD wavelength dependence (hence Angstrom exponënt). We

˚ provide best fit equations for determining correction factors from Angstrom ëxponents of uncorrected AOD spectra, and we demonstrate their application to vertical profiles of multiwavelength AOD.

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Interdisciplinary Science Program (IDS)
Radiation Science Program (RSP)